What is Post-traumatic Stress Disorder?
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder caused by very stressful, frightening or distressing events.
Symptoms of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Someone with PTSD often relives the traumatic event through nightmares and flashbacks, and may experience feelings of isolation, irritability and guilt.
They may also have problems sleeping, such as insomnia and find concentrating a struggle.
These symptoms are often severe and persistent enough to have a significant impact on the person’s day-to-day life.
Causes of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Any situation that a person finds traumatic can cause PTSD. These can include:
- serious road accidents
- violent personal assaults, such as sexual assault, mugging or robbery
- serious health problems
- childbirth or childhood experiences
PTSD can develop immediately after someone experiences a disturbing event, or it can occur weeks, months or even years later.
PTSD is estimated to affect about 1 in every 3 people who have a traumatic experience, but it’s not clear exactly why some people develop the condition and why others do not.
Complex Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
People who repeatedly experience traumatic situations, such as severe neglect, abuse or violence, may be diagnosed with complex PTSD.
Complex PTSD can cause similar symptoms to PTSD and may not develop until years after the event.
It’s often more severe if the trauma was experienced early in life, as this can affect a child’s development.
Complex PTSD may be diagnosed in adults or children who have repeatedly experienced traumatic events, such as violence, neglect or abuse.
Complex PTSD is thought to be more severe if:
- the traumatic events happened early in life
- the trauma was caused by a parent or carer
- the person experienced the trauma for a long time
- the person was alone during the trauma
- there’s still contact with the person responsible for the trauma
As it may take years for the symptoms of complex PTSD to be recognised, a child’s development, including their behaviour and self-confidence, can be altered as they get older.
Adults with complex PTSD may lose their trust in people and feel separated from others.
Symptoms of Complex PTSD
The symptoms of complex PTSD are similar to symptoms of PTSD, but may include:
- feelings of shame or guilt
- difficulty controlling your emotions
- periods of losing attention and concentration (dissociation)
- physical symptoms, such as headaches, dizziness, chest pains and stomach aches
- cutting yourself off from friends and family
- relationship difficulties
- destructive or risky behaviour, such as self-harm, alcohol misuse or drug abuse
- suicidal thoughts
Treating Complex PTSD
If you have complex PTSD, you may be offered therapies used to treat PTSD, such as trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) or eye movement de-sensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR).
People with complex PTSD often find it difficult to trust other people. You may be offered more therapy sessions than usual so that you have time to build a trusting relationship with your therapist.
You’ll also be offered treatment for other problems you may have, such as depression or alcohol addiction.
You should be offered on-going support after your treatment ends.
When To Seek Medical Advice
It’s normal to experience upsetting and confusing thoughts after a traumatic event, but most people improve naturally over the course of a few weeks.
You should see a GP if you or your child are still having problems about 4 weeks after the traumatic experience, or if the symptoms are particularly troublesome.
If necessary, your GP can refer you to mental health specialists for further assessment and treatment.
How Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Is Treated
PTSD can be successfully treated, even when it develops many years after a traumatic event.
Any treatment depends on the severity of symptoms and how soon they occur after the traumatic event.
Any of the following treatment options may be recommended:
- watchful waiting – monitoring your symptoms to see whether they improve or get worse without treatment
- antidepressants prescribed by your GP/Health professional – such as paroxetine or mirtazapine
- Psychological therapies – such as trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) or eye movement de-sensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR)
You can refer yourself directly to a psychological therapies service.
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